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How a Man Helped Close a Loophole in Illinois’ Slavery Law

Sydney Stallworth, Brad Wynn
"Pete" was one of many slaves considered property of the Jarrot family in Cahokia Heights. He sued for his freedom, and the lawsuit closed Illinois' slavery loophole. Pete's lawyer, Lyman Trumbull, went on to shape the 13th Amendment.

Five Constitutional Amendments for Right Now

Zachary B. Wolf CNN
There can be long periods where it feels impossible to amend the Constitution. But then conditions change and in a very short period of time there can be three, four or five amendments. The heart of the story is progressive change.

The 13th Amendment’s Fatal Flaw Created Modern-Day Convict Slavery

Kwasi Konadu, Clifford C. Campbell The Conversation
Given the political realities and economic imperatives at play, free prison labor will persist in America for the foreseeable future, leaving in serious doubt the idea of American freedom – and abundant evidence of modern-day convict slavery.

We Are Not Done With Abolition

Eric Foner The New York Times
The framers of the 13th Amendment did not intend to establish an empire of prison labor.
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