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“The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro”

Frederick Douglass The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, Volume II
Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass gave this speech in Rochester, New York on July 5, 1852. Some now give this speech the title, "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?"

Reparations Get Real

Ramenda Cyrus The American Prospect
In California, the preliminary report of a governmental task force suggests how the toll of slavery and white supremacy can be assessed—and compensated for.

We Have Failed To Protect Our Kids; We Have Never Been Civil

Roxane Gay New York Times
Incivility runs through the history of this country, founded on stolen land, built with the labor of stolen lives. The document that governs our lives effectively denied more than half of the population the right to vote.

The Root of Haiti’s Misery: Reparations to Enslavers

Catherine Porter, Constant Méheut, Matt Apuzzo and Selam Gebrekidan New York Times
In 1791, enslaved Haitians did the seemingly impossible. They ousted their French masters and founded a nation. But France made generations of Haitians pay for their freedom — in cash. How much has remained a mystery, until now.

The Long Hand of Slave Breeding, Redux

JoAnn Wypijewski CounterPunch
Unfinished in 1865 and unfinished today, the 13th Amendment says to every woman: You are heir in your person to a promise of universal freedom, that recognizes an individual’s right to her life, her labor, her body and self-possession all as one.
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